Several of the more recently listed POPs have been used or are still used in products and articles including e.g. PFOS in carpets, paper, textiles or fire fighting foam or HBCD in insulation foam or textiles. In addition, although production of other POPs has stopped, they are still present in consumer articles in use and in the end of life and recycling flows (e.g. listed polybrominated diphenyl ethers (POP-PBDEs) as flame retardants in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) or the transport sector). Their use and presence in these material flows, including the waste stream, need to be managed.
Information on the presence of POPs in articles and products is essential for controlling and eliminating these POPs, for preventing POPs from entering recycling schemes and for the implementation of the national implementation plans. However, Parties to the Convention are now facing challenges in monitoring these substances due to the lack of information on POPs in products and articles and their presence in the recycling streams. Detailed information on POPs in articles and products is needed in order to prevent the POPs contamination of products produced from recycling; however, this information is often not available due to the lack of labelling of POPs in products.
Monitoring of chemicals and products by authorities is largely conducted by control of, for example, import papers and other information documents, chemical names, product names, CAS number, GHS labels or HS codes. These and other tools and regulatory frameworks for monitoring of POPs (and other hazardous chemicals) in products and articles are described in Annex 1. However, a range of gaps for the monitoring and management of POPs (and other hazardous chemicals) in articles and products exists for all these tools and regulatory frameworks (see Annex 1). In addition there are a range of voluntary schemes for identification of chemicals in articles to regulate and facilitate the control of chemicals (including POPs) in articles and products (Annex 2). However, these voluntary schemes also have gaps in respect to monitoring of POPs in articles and products (Annex 2).
Due to the limitations of these tools and of voluntary schemes (see Annexes 1 and 2) for monitoring newly listed POPs in articles and products, the improvement of some of these schemes and additional regulatory frames for disclosing information on chemicals in products are needed.
In addition a complementary analytical monitoring approach is needed for those POPs which are currently in articles/products where information on their presence and distribution is missing. Also analytical monitoring is needed for recycling flows where POPs containing articles may end up and in the articles and products made from these recycling flows.
Therefore, in this chapter information is compiled on existing systems which are already used to gather more information on chemicals in articles and products and on guidance and case studies on monitoring of POPs in articles.